Thursday, 12 December 2019

Japanese Grammar - 日本語の文法

Japanese Grammar - 日本語の文法

one 一

two 二

three 三

four 四

five 五

six 六

seven セブン

eight 八

nine 九

ten 十

Pokemon Protest ポケモン抗議

Triumph for Japan on the first day of the World Judo Masters

世界柔道マスターズ初日の日本への勝利

More fiscal stimulus announced in Japan

日本で発表されたさらなる財政刺激策

Japan will export apples to India on trial basis

日本はリンゴを試験的にインドに輸出する

5 comments:

  1. Thank you for interesting Japanese Grammar notes.

    興味深い日本語の文法メモをありがとう。

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    Replies
    1. Thanks for liking the Japanese Grammar post. Here are some more words:

      Emotions in Japanese 日本語の感情

      Here are emotions in the Japanese language.
      これが日本語の感情です。

      Happy- Ureshii: うれしい; 嬉しい
      Elated- Kozen: こうぜん
      Angry- Ikaru: おこる or いかる; 怒る
      Worried- Nayamu: なやむ; 悩む
      Scared- Ojiru: おじる;怖じる
      Terrified- Kyouzen: きょうぜん;境然
      Relieved- Sutto: すうっと;
      Bored- Tsumaranasou: つまらなそう; 詰まらなそう
      Silly- Tawainai: たわいない; 他愛ない
      Shocked- Akireru: あきれる; 呆れる
      Annoyed- Urusagaru: うるさがる; 煩がる
      Rushed- Soso: そうそう; 匆々
      Excited- Gekko: げっこう; 激昂
      Sad- Kanashi: かなしい; 悲しい
      Lonely- Sabishi: さびしい; 寂しい
      Lazy- Tsutsushimanai: つつしまない
      Shy- Hazukashi: はずかしい; 恥ずかしい
      Bashful- Shuchi: しゅうち; 羞恥
      Eager- Setsutunaru: せつなる; 切なる
      Calm- Nagoyaku: なごやく; あラカジめ
      Relaxed- Arakajime: あらかじめ
      Anxious- Anjiru: あんじる; 案じる
      Condescending- Onkisegamashi: おんきせがましい; 恩着せがましい
      Cautious- Sononai: そつのない; 卒のない
      Confused- Magomago: まごまご

      Japanese Verbs to Express Emotion:

      Happiness:

      笑わらう laugh
      褒ほめる encourage
      喜よろこぶ celebrate, to be jubilant, to have joy
      好このむー to like/prefer

      Sadness:

      慰なぐさめる consoling someone
      悲かなしむ feeling sad
      泣なく cry

      Anger:

      怒おこる feeling angry
      叱しかる scold

      Bore, Shock, Gratitude:

      あきる、飽あきる feeling disinterested, bored, tired or weary
      驚おどろく to be astonished, to be surprised
      感謝かんしゃするー feeling grateful
      びっくりするー to feel surprised, amazed or frightened

      Adjectives for Expressing Emotions in Japanese:

      嬉うれしい happy
      悲かなしい sad
      恥はずかしい ー shy
      寂さびしい、淋しい lonely
      怖こわい、恐い scary
      辛つらい painful, heart-breaking
      苦くるしい difficult, agonizing, feeling forced
      懐なつかしい to endear, desire or miss something

      Basic Japanese Questions and Answers 日本語の基本的な質問と回答

      Basic 基本
      Questions 質問
      Answers 回答

      Here are the most common Japanese questions and answers.

      There are no question marks in standard writing. Thus, "か" or "Ka" ending imply that the sentence is a question.

      In speech, the "Ka" can be dropped to turn the question into a very casual one.

      1. Asking "What’s your name?" in Japanese

      名前は何ですか。
      Namae wa nan desu ka?

      Super Polite:
      (name) と申します。
      (name) to moushimasu.
      I am (name).

      2. Where are you from?

      出身はどこですか。
      Shusshin wa doko desu ka?

      3. Where do you live?

      どこに住んでいますか。
      Doko ni sunde imasu ka?

      4. What’s your job (occupation)?

      仕事は何ですか。
      Shigoto wa nan desu ka?

      5. Can you speak Japanese?

      日本語を話せますか。
      Nihongo wo hanasemasu ka?

      6. How long have you been studying Japanese for?

      どのくらい日本語を勉強していますか。
      Dono kurai nihongo wo benkyou shite imasu ka?

      7. Where have you learned Japanese?

      どこで日本語を学びましたか。
      Doko de nihongo wo manabimashita ka?

      8. Can you eat Japanese food?

      日本食が食べられますか。
      Nihon shoku ga taberaremasu ka?

      9. Do you like Japanese food?

      日本食が好きですか。
      Nihon shoku ga suki desuka?

      10. Asking "How is it?" in Japanese

      どうですか。
      Dou desu ka?

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  3. Replies
    1. Thanks for liking the post. There is more:

      Numbers in Japanese 日本語の数字

      Number 数
      Numeral 数字
      Writing 書き込み
      Same 同じ
      Follow フォローする
      Group グループ
      Important 重要
      Horizontal 水平
      Vertical 垂直

      The Japanese numerals are the number names used in Japanese. In writing, they are the same as the Chinese numerals, and the grouping of large numbers follows the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10,000. Two pronunciations are used: the Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters and the Japanese yamato kotoba (native words, kun'yomi readings).

      There are 2 important ways of writing the numbers in Japanese: in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Arabic numerals are certainly more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing.

      Number Character

      0 零 / 〇
      1 一
      2 二
      3 三
      4 四
      5 五
      6 六
      7 七
      8 八
      9 九
      10 十
      20 二十
      30 三十
      40 四十
      50 五十
      60 六十
      70 七十
      80 八十
      90 九十
      100 百
      500 五百
      800 八百
      1,000 千
      10,000 万
      100,000,000 億
      1,000,000,000,000 兆
      10,000,000,000,000,000 京

      Japanese Verbs and Tenses 日本語の動詞と時制

      Verb 動詞
      Tense 時制
      Conjugation 活用
      Regular レギュラー
      Irregular 不規則
      Dictionary 辞書
      Original 元の

      Japanese verb conjugations are interesting. See the list of Japanese verb conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The present plain form (the dictionary form) of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form.

      When a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called "form". Forms change depending on the tense, mode, and suffix of the verb's stem. The stem of the verb is the prefix that is unchanging in the conjugation.

      For example in the following infinitive (aka dictionary) forms of these verbs the stem is in bold:

      iku (行く): To go
      taberu (食べる) To eat
      Verb conjugates are often grouped into two categories, according to whether the last letter of the stem is a vowel or consonant (when romanized)

      Type I: consonant-stems (五段動詞, godandōshi), and
      Type II: vowel-stems (一段動詞, ichidandōshi, いる iru,える eru forms).
      For conjugating type I verbs the suffix of the infinitive form is replaced by a different sound according to the original suffix, then a suffix which is consistent by tense is added.

      The infinitive form of a type I verb has an う u sound (u, tsu, ru, ku, gu, nu, bu, mu, su)
      The polite ~ます -masu form has an い i sound (i, chi, ri, ki, gi, ni, bi, mi, shi)
      The negative form has an あ a sound (wa, ta, ra, ka, ga, na, ba, ma, sa)
      The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se)
      The volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, nō, bō, mō, sō).

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