Thursday 13 April 2023

SpaceX - Starship Mission to Planet Mars

So-called "Mars" is the 4th planet from the Sun and the third largest and massive terrestrial object in the Solar System. Mars has a thin atmosphere and a crust primarily composed of elements similar to Earth's crust, as well as a core made of iron and nickel. Mars has surface features such as impact craters, valleys, dunes, and polar ice caps. Mars has two small, irregularly shaped moons, Phobos and Deimos.

Some of the most notable surface features on Mars include Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and highest-known mountain in the Solar System, and Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The Borealis basin in the Northern Hemisphere covers approximately 40% of the planet and may be a large impact feature. Days and seasons on Mars are comparable to those of Earth, as the planets have a similar rotation period and tilt of the rotational axis relative to the ecliptic plane. Liquid water on the surface of Mars cannot exist due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the atmospheric pressure on Earth. Both of Mars's polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. In the distant past, Mars was likely wetter, and thus possibly more suited for life. It is not known whether life has ever existed on Mars.

Although we usually think of water being liquid between zero and 100 degrees Celsius, this is only true for pure water at Earth's sea level atmospheric pressure (about 14.7 pounds per square inch or 1014 millibar).

The single combination of pressure and temperature at which liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor can coexist in a stable equilibrium occurs at exactly 273.1600 K (0.0100 °C; 32.0180 °F) and a partial vapor pressure of 611.657 pascals (6.11657 mbar; 0.00603659 atm).

At sufficiently low pressures there is no liquid phase, but the substance can exist as either gas or solid. For water, there is no liquid phase at pressures below 0.00600 atm. The phase change from solid to gas is called sublimation.

Can liquid water exist above 100 C? Yes. Temperature of water can not exceed 100 deg celsius only when pressure is 1 atm, as it starts boiling and vaporise. If pressure is increased, then the boiling point can also be increased and water can attain more than 100 degree celsius. This is why indeed pressure cookers cook faster.

NASA’s $93BN Plan to Return to the Moon

Futurology on Youtube has the story.

In two years, NASA really plans to land humans on the Moon! NASA’s Artemis Program, which will establish a permanent human presence on the Moon, is currently underway. It has 4 main components: The space launch system, or SLS, which will launch astronauts into orbit. The Orion spacecraft, which will transport them to and from the Moon. The human landing system, which will transport them to and from the lunar surface. And Gateway, a space station that will support ground operations. 

Already, Artemis 1, which launched in November 2022, has successfully demonstrated the SLS and Orion, by sending an un-crewed Orion around the Moon and back to Earth. The next mission, in 2024, will launch astronauts around the Moon and finally, in 2025, they will land on the surface. After this, many more missions will establish a permanent human lunar presence, serving as a stepping stone to Mars and other destinations even further into the solar system!

What is NASA?

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the USA federal government responsible for the civil space program, aeronautics research, and space research.

NASA was established in 1958, succeeding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), to give the USA space development effort a distinctly civilian orientation, emphasizing peaceful applications in space science. NASA has since led most American space exploration, including Project Mercury, Project Gemini, the 1968-1972 Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and the Space Shuttle. NASA supports the International Space Station and oversees the development of the Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System for the crewed lunar Artemis program, Commercial Crew spacecraft, and the planned Lunar Gateway space station. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program, which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for uncrewed NASA launches.

FAA finally declared SpaceX Starship OFT is Ready

FAA finally declared SpaceX Starship OFT is READY...

GREAT SPACEX is the Channel on Youtube that has the story.

FAA finally declared SpaceX Starship OFT happen next week

Following months (if not years) of anticipation, Starship’s inaugural orbital test flight could finally happen next week, according to a planning notice posted Tuesday by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

The FAA notice said the launch's primary expected date is April 10, but listed backup dates as April 11 and 12. Billionaire Elon Musk's SpaceX rocket and satellite company must still get a launch license for what is expected to be its first orbital flight test from Boca Chica, Texas.

"The FAA has not made a license determination for the SpaceX Starship Super Heavy operation, and the FAA's Command Center planning notice should not be interpreted as an indicator that a determination to issue a license has been made or is forthcoming," the FAA said in a statement.

What is FAA?

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the largest transportation agency of the USA government and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in the country as well as over surrounding international waters. Its powers include air traffic control, certification of personnel and aircraft, setting standards for airports, and protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization.

China Reveals Major New Discovery: Water On The Moon

New source of water found in moon samples from China mission

Read more about it here:

Scientists have really discovered a new and renewable source of water on the moon for future explorers in lunar samples returned from a Chinese mission

Scientists have discovered a new and renewable source of water on the moon for future explorers in lunar samples from a Chinese mission.

Water was embedded in tiny glass beads in the lunar dirt where meteorite impacts occur. These shiny, multicolored glass beads were in samples returned from the moon by China in 2020.

The beads range in size from the width of one hair to several hairs; the water content was just a miniscule fraction of that, said Hejiu Hui of Nanjing University, who took part in the study.

Since there are billions if not trillions of these impact beads, that could amount to substantial amounts of water, but mining it would be tough, according to the team.